Davis presented, in 1989, the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) to explain the
determinants of user acceptance of a wide range of end-user computing
technologies (Davis 1989). TAM points out that perceived ease of use and
perceived usefulness affect the intention to use. Davis (1989) defines
perceived ease of use as "the degree to which a person believes that using a
particular system would be free from effort" and perceived usefulness as "the
degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would enhance
his or her job performance". Perceived ease of use also affects the perceived
usefulness. The intention to use affects real usage behaviour.
TAM was originally developed for studying technology at work. Later it has
been used as such or modified to study user acceptance of consumer services
such as Internet services or e-commerce (Kaasinen, 2005). The Technology
Acceptance Model constitutes a solid framework for identifying issues that may
affect user acceptance of technical solutions. As Davis and Venkatesh (2004)
have proved, the model can be enhanced from the original purpose of studying
user acceptance of existing products to study planned product concepts, e.g.
in the form of mock-ups. This indicates that TAM could also be used in
connection with technology development projects and processes to assess the
usefulness of proposed solutions. Applied in this way, the model also supports
the human-centred design approach.
VTT has adopted TAM in connection with field trials carried out in connection
with the research and development of new technology. When field trials are
included in the design process, the focus of usability studies is enhanced
from the traditional usability conception of specified users performing
specified tasks in specified contexts of use. In field trials, users can use
the prototype services as part of their everyday life. The research framework
can then be enhanced to identify the actual tasks that users want to perform
and the actual contexts of use. Technology acceptance models provide a
framework for these kinds of studies.
VTT has modified the original TAM based on studies of mobile consumer
services. Technology Acceptance Model for Mobile Services (Kaasinen, 2005)
suggests that perceived ease of use, perceived value and trust affect the
intention to use a mobile service. To move from an intention to use to real
usage, the user has to take the service into use. This transition is affected
by the perceived ease of adoption. Perceived value, perceived ease of use,
trust and perceived ease of adoption need to be studied in order to assess
user acceptance of mobile services.
Davis F. D. 1989. Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user
acceptance of information technology. MIS Quartely:13/1989, pp. 319–339.
Davis, F. D. and Venkatesh, V. 2004. Toward preprototype user acceptance
testing of new information systems: implications for software project
management. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. 51, No 1.
Kaasinen, Eija. 2005 . User acceptance of mobile services - value, ease of
use, trust and ease of adoption.
(/) VTT Information
Technology, Espoo. 151 s. VTT Publications 566. ISBN 951-38-6640-8.