This project focuses on the pre-normative research required for the measurement and testing of Ultra High Voltage (UHV) equipment with an emphasis on direct current (d.c.) applications. UHV is the common denominator between the three areas being addressed in this project, which are the measurement of composite d.c. wave shapes, very fast transients, and fault detection. Future high voltage (HV) and ultra‑high voltage (UHV) grids need support for progress beyond the state of the art to be achieved in terms of measurement techniques for d.c. applications. This project will provide IEC TC38, TC42, TC62C and related standardisation groups with methods to develop standards for medical x-ray equipment, for the measurement of very fast transients (VFT) and for partial discharge (PD) measurements for d.c. All of these areas will create an impact on the electrical power industry.
The x-ray voltage measurement activities in this project will benefit from the divider design experience gained in EMRP ENG07 HVDC. This knowledge will be used to take a first step in the measurement of d.c. switching, which will prepare the way for the development of the new methods needed for the traceable measurement of UHV grid component testing. Switching in general has an unknown effect on the instrument transformers and sensors used for gas insulated system (GIS) applications, both in terms of very fast transient over‑voltage (VFTO) on the low voltage side in existing HV grids and to an even larger extent in planned UHV grids. Progress in providing new methods for the traceable measurement of fast transients in two time domains are addressed in the VFT section below, and experience will be exchanged with the ongoing EMPIR project 14IND08 ElPow. New procedures for partial discharge (PD) measurements in d.c. grids and the traceability for ultra-sensitive PD calibrators will be addressed. Future UHV grids, with an emphasis on d.c. grids, will need methods for the detection of PD and for the determination of the source.
This pre-normative research will support the metrology needed for the standardisation of UHV transmission measurement techniques. The work will further provide guidance for HV metrology in medical electrical equipment. The industry needs traceable methods for d.c. switching measurements, in this case applied to x‑ray acceleration voltage measurements. Instrument manufacturers are asking for improved standardisation in this field, and medical staff and patients need more accurate x-ray dosing. Thus, it is essential to provide a unified view between the manufacturers and the users in this case. The research will further provide input to measurements for VFT, which is essential for the measurement of transmitted over voltages, and which is also critical for the insulation coordination of GIS equipment. Manufacturers of instrument transformers and GIS need traceability and new methods for the measurement of VFT, which are not covered by the NMIs today. It will further provide input to PD measurement techniques for equipment under d.c. stress, to detect and prevent insulation failures, e.g. for d.c. transmission and distribution using cables. The power grid operators and manufacturers of equipment for d.c. grids need new methods for PD detection. Traceability for low level PD, for the early detection of faults in all power grids, is also needed for the development and testing of equipment.
This project has the following scientific and technical objectives:
- To provide a substantial contribution to TC62C work. This will contribute to the revision of IEC 61676 (Medical electrical equipment – Dosimetry instruments used for non‑invasive measurement of x‑ray tube voltage in diagnostic radiology). The project will deliver calibration procedures, including a statement of uncertainty, for invasive dividers for different x‑ray equipment applications.
- To provide a substantial contribution to TC38 and TC42 work (via task-force D1.63). This will contribute to the development of measurement techniques relating to transmitted over voltages in terms of VFTO, thereby supporting the pre‑normative CIGRE working group D1.60 (Traceable measurement techniques for very fast transients), which in turn will report it to TC42. The project will deliver calibration procedures and CMC entries for VFTO to 100 kV, 10 ns, with a target uncertainty of 1 %.
- To provide a substantial contribution to TC42 work (via task-force D1.63). This will be achieved by contributing to the revision of IEC 60060 series (High‑voltage test techniques), IEC TC42 MT17, and thereby supporting the pre‑normative CIGRE working group D1.63 (Partial discharge measurements). The project will deliver a calibration procedure and CMCs will be updated to include low‑level PD down to 0.1 pC with a target uncertainty of 0.01 pC.
- To work closely with the European and International Standards Developing Organisations, and the users of the Standards they develop, to ensure that the outputs of the project are aligned with their needs, communicated quickly to those developing the standards, and in a form that can be incorporated into standards at the earliest opportunity.
Progress beyond the state of the art
15NRM02 will advance the state of the art in the following three areas:
X-ray. Users currently find that the methods of validation and calibration of x‑ray high voltage tubes, using invasive equipment, are vague and can be interpreted in a variety of ways. In addition, the practical peak voltage (PPV) was recently adopted by the IEC as a new quantity for the calibration of x‑ray high voltage tubes. The lack of traceability of this new quantity will lead to additional errors. This project will go beyond the state of the art by developing and validating appropriate measurement methods for the calibration of x‑ray units for every type of pulse (time duration from 200 µs to a few seconds). Traceability of the PPV will ensure better control of the dose received by the patient.
Very fast transients. In areas where very fast transients are measured, e.g. monitoring of GIS systems, this project will go beyond the state of the art by providing new methods and calibration capability, in response to end user's needs, in a field where traceable calibration is not currently available. In GIS, wideband sensors working in the ultra-high frequency (UHF) range are adapted to GIS ducts by the manufacturers in order to measure internal VFTO in sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) insulated equipment without traceable calibration.
Partial discharge. In high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission systems, the traceability of PD measurements will be improved and metrological support will be given to the new measuring instruments that are used to analyse the insulation condition of a d.c. grid. Therefore, this project will go beyond the state of the art by developing reliable techniques for PD measurements and diagnosis. This will involve evaluating the correlation between apparent charge in pC and the voltage measured in a different frequency range for HVDC cable systems. d.c. systems will be modelled and validated by means of measurements using reference PD measuring methods.
To provide a substantial contribution to TC62C work. This will contribute to the revision of IEC 61676 (Medical electrical equipment – Dosimetry instruments used for non‑invasive measurement of x‑ray tube voltage in diagnostic radiology). The project will deliver calibration procedures, including a statement of uncertainty, for invasive dividers for different x‑ray equipment applications.
The work in this project on x‑ray charging voltage measurement will lead both to new services becoming available from European NMIs, and to input for the amendment of written standards. A very important set of x‑ray equipment performance characteristics will involve the determination of the measurement uncertainty and the reproducibility of the peak voltage and exposure time. The traceable calibration of x‑ray equipment will ensure a better control of the x‑ray dose.
Prior to selection of the voltage dividers for in-situ measurements of the acceleration voltage, a study of ionisation chambers was made. Two voltage dividers were selected from 4 candidate types, with 8 models of each. A method was selected to be used for the measurements, and two voltage dividers were purchased and have been characterized, determining the frequency response, DC and AC linearity, proximity effects, influence of output impedances and temperature effects. Both dividers have also been characterised at high voltage for different waveforms; AC, DC, LI, SI, square waveform with duration from 200 µs to two seconds.
A method of low current measurements under high voltage has been developed using a commercial clamp meter with an x-ray generator as source, applying mathematic post processing for the determination of correction factors for specific waveform parameters. With the calculated correction factors, a conversion of the standardised KVp quantity to a new quantity named Practical Peak Voltage (PPV) can now be validated by measurements in an X-ray generator. The conversion factor was found to be proportional to the ripples and the voltage level. In-situ measurements are now possible in this rather noisy environment.
High voltage waveforms for voltages as typically used by x-ray machines have been generated, for a time duration of between 200 μs and a few seconds in order to check the linearity of the selected invasive dividers. High voltage measurements have been performed at DC, AC and at switching impulse in order to validate that the voltage dividers are fast enough to measure possible transients at 200 μs. This gives input into calculating invasive divider correction factors for the waveforms.
A set-up composed of a fast X-ray generator, Ross dividers, and KVp meters has been set-up. The objective is to compare different measurements technics (invasive and non-invasive methods) and to study the behaviours of non-invasive technics by studying the influence quantities and to elaborate a guideline for the uncertainty calculations.
To provide a substantial contribution to TC38 and TC42 work (via task-force D1.60). This will contribute to the development of measurement techniques relating to transmitted over voltages in terms of VFTO, thereby supporting the pre‑normative CIGRE working group D1.60 (Traceable measurement techniques for very fast transients), which in turn will report it to TC42. The project will deliver calibration procedures and CMC entries for VFTO to 100 kV, 10 ns, with a target uncertainty of 1 %.
The work on VFTO will provide new calibration methods for fast transient sensors installed in GIS. VFTOs are critical for the insulation coordination of GIS equipment. Therefore, different techniques, most of them in the field, are used to reduce the risk of VFTO. For this reason, VFTO have to be measured in service conditions. In order to assure the reliability of corrective actions to reduce VFTO, wideband sensors have to be calibrated and traceability will be developed.
A reference measurement system for VFTO, with a bandwidth of 400 MHz, consisting of a newly developed transient recorder and a voltage divider up to 600 kV, has been selected, characterized and calibrated. The performance of this system is being published at the conference CPEM2018 in July 2018. A voltage divider for VFT, developed by VTT in the 14IND08 ElPow project, is now being modified and calibrated for the measurements of VFT.
A design of a first setup approach is ongoing, for the generation of very fast transient overvoltages (VFTO) by FFII and VTT with support from RISE, to perform measurements based on an existing GIS system at the lab of FFII. The calibration equipment for measurement of transmitted over-voltages has been selected and three wideband attenuators have been built and calibrated.
IEC TC42 is being updated during their sessions about the development, and contributions are continuing in the work on a technical brochure on VFT techniques within CIGRE D1.60. A co-axial GIS setup has been designed for the calibration of very fast transient sensors.
For the the standard IEC 61869-1 of IEC TC38 calibration equipment has been designed and built, providing an calculable impulse shape of 0.5/50 ms, to be used for traceable measurments of transmitted over-voltages.
To provide a substantial contribution to TC42 work (via task-force D1.63). This will be achieved by contributing to the revision of IEC 60060 series (High‑voltage test techniques), IEC TC42 MT17, and thereby supporting the pre‑normative CIGRE working group D1.63 (Partial discharge measurements). The project will deliver a calibration procedure and CMCs will be updated to include low‑level PD down to 0.1 pC with a target uncertainty of 0.01 pC.
This project's work on PD measurement techniques will lead to new calibration services for the most sensitive PD measuring instruments. It will provide a significant understanding of PD phenomena in HVDC systems. Results will be directly inputted to the relevant standardisation committee (IEC TC42). Improvement of PD measurements under d.c. stress will ensure a better service continuity for d.c. transmission and distribution grids using cable systems. Moreover, a reduction of the risk of eventual explosion or blackouts due to a short‑circuit fault is expected, because incipient PD pulses caused by small defects will be detected, thus preventing insulation failures.
We expect that according to the project plan, the new calibration procedures for level PD down to 0.1 pC will be introduced by four partners, and respective CMCs submitted for EURAMET review. The target measurement uncertainty of 0.01 pC have already been reached. The experience will be shared within IEC TC42, and it will have influence onto the next revision of IEC 60270. The experience on PD under d.c. voltage stress will be discussed within the CIGRE working group D1.63, and is expected to contribute to the writing of a technical brochure. The results will further be presented to IEC TC42 for input to standardisation.
Representative test cells for corona PD, cavity PD, surface PD and floating PD have been designed. The response time of two different approaches of test cells have been analysed. A database of reference PD pulses in High Voltage DC/AC for corona PD, cavity PD, surface PD and floating PD has been generated. Discussions with grid operators are ongoing in order to record representative noise in HV d.c. grids. A calibration setup is designed to apply the new procedure for determining the suitability of the PD analysers used in d.c.. An analysis is in progress of two different commercial function (arbitrary waveform) generators to generate analytical PD pulses from the digital files recorded in the tests performed using the test cells. Work is ongoing on the test data generator software for use in the qualification of PD analysers.
To work closely with the European and International Standards Developing Organisations, and the users of the Standards they develop, to ensure that the outputs of the project are aligned with their needs, communicated quickly to those developing the standards, and in a form that can be incorporated into standards at the earliest opportunity.
This research will create impact by enhancing the metrology for high voltage and other related quantities through the development of new techniques for the application of precision measurements. Essential competencies will be developed in a multidisciplinary approach. Successful achievement of the objectives will enable a greater number of test laboratories to benefit from research projects in the field of high voltage metrology.
Plans for the measurement system for VFTO were presented and discussed at the meeting of CIGRE D1.60 in Paris during the CIGRE general meeting. Input by this project and work on the technical brochure was discussed. IEC TC42 was informed about the ongoing activities at the annual meeting in Frankfurt in Oct 2016.
The uptake of calibration services to be provided by the project has been prepared by informing the standardisation bodies TC38, TC42 and TC62C during web meetings and at the 80th general IEC meeting in Aug 2016. The pre-normative bodies Cigré D1.60 (VFT) and D1.63 (PD under d.c. stress) are now preparing for uptake of the results. A publication of a new transient recorder for VFT measurements is being submitted to CPEM2018.Impact on relevant standards
The calibration of X-ray systems and development of algorithms for improved calibration is needed for future standardisation by TC62C. With this new calibration method, X-ray exposure to patients and staff will be kept at a minimum. In the final stages of the project, this method will be presented to the IEC TC62C for possible uptake in the IEC 61676 standard.
Partners have taken part in CIGRE meetings in Paris 2016, where the measurement system for VFTO was presented and discussed in CIGRE WG D1.60. During the ISH2017 conference in Buenos Aires, the progress on generation, measurement and methods for calibration of systems for VFTO was discussed.
IEC TC42 was updated on the progress in the development of VFT and PD under d.c. stress in Frankfurt 2016 and at the session in Toronto 2017. Both the VFT and PD under d.c. voltage research will have an impact on standardisation. IEC TC38/WG50 is preparing documents that consider how transmitted overvoltages add to measurement uncertainties.
Impact on industrial and other user communities
Improved calibration of X-ray systems is needed to minimize the X-ray dose on patients.
The project has triggered cooperation with the instrument manufacturer National Instruments, and a new transient recorder for VFT measurements, the PXIe-5164, has been characterized within the project and is now available on the market. This will have impact by improving diagnostics in correct measurements of discharges in power grids, especially in GIS systems. A good news story of the digitizer has been published on the Euramet web-page and the project web-page with the title "Innovative instrument developed for electrical networks".
The project is able to provide methods for identification of PD sources in d.c. grids, of great interest for grid operators. Grid operators are already supplying data to the project in order to validate methods for the identification of PD sources. Correct assessment of source and position of PD in the grid will both have impact on reliability and failure prevention the power industry as well as on the user communities in grid operation. The power industry will be able to use the new methods for identification of PD under d.c. stress for monitoring of the systems.
Impact on the metrology and scientific communities
Cooperation with a manufacturer on the design of a transient recorder for VFT has provided the community with a technology that has a dramatic increase in dynamic range combined with a high bandwidth and excellent step response needed in transient digitisers. This technique has the potential to become the state of the art.
The development of techniques for traceable PD calibrators for the traceable low-level calibration of PD down to 0.1 pC will have an impact on metrology. The design and construction of standard source equipment for studies of various corona sources, providing standardised typical PD patterns for d.c. systems, will also have largew impact on the research in this field.