The scientific goal of the project is to investigate the influence of frost attack of concrete, in the form of surface scaling and internal cracking, on the transport characteristics of chloride ion in concrete. The goal will be addressed through three specific scientific objectives:

• to ascertain how ice formation in the concrete pore structure influences the transport properties of chloride ions;

• to establish the characteristic of chloride ions transport in concrete subject to surface scaling and internal cracking due to frost attack;

• to develop more reliable service life design models that take into account the interacted effect of degradation mechanism - namely frost attack on chloride penetration into concrete.